Diabetes in common terms mean the disease ‘Diabetes mellitus’. Basically, diabetes mellitus is a disorder of the body’s means of utilizing sugar, or glucose - the body’s basic fuel.
During digestion, food is converted to glucose (sugar) and then transported to the body cells for energy by insulin. In diabetes, food is changed into glucose readily enough, but insulin (a hormone secreted by the pancreas) is either lacking or unable to do its job properly. Glucose then builds up in the blood, leading to high blood glucose (blood sugar) levels.
Thus as described previously, insulin is necessary for glucose circulating in the blood stream to enter the cells, where it supplies the energy to run the functions of your body. If glucose does not enter the cells, it is virtually useless, and the cells of the body starve. In short; the body’s cells require insulin to maintain a constant energy supply. There are two exceptions to this general rule.
1.Insulin is not necessary for glucose to enter the cells of the brain.
2.When you are exercising, the muscle cells can extract glucose from the blood without insulin.
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